I dont incorporate people and history into my geography other than labeling countries. However, geography is considered social studies/history in the school system.
I do talk about geography a lot with history but we do a separate geography book that is only landforms and maps and graphs, etc. So I do history and tie in geography but never teach geography and add in history.
We're doing World Geography right now. We're learning about the continents, the biomes of the different countries within the continents, and about the people who live in the different countries. We're also learning map and directional skills.
My kids can now locate and identify far more countries than I could at their age.
the study of earth layers I think would go more with geology not geography... Geography is the study of land, and landformations as it relates to people, and how people are affected by the land. This includes population, culture, religion, climate, etc. Typically, it is really easy to intergrate into history lessons since you're all ready studying about people, and many times their culture... Throwing in some maps where/when you're studying is usually really easy, and have them mark major landmarks such as rivers and mountains... The key with geography is to talk about why those landmarks are important to how and why those things happened. How could it have been different for a that culture if they lived in a different region in the world that didn't have those physical features? If this event happened during this time because of these physcial features, how could it have been different in this time (for instance, Alexander the Great marching through mountains across Europe, to how long it would have taken if he was alive during this century for example)?
What grade? In k it begins with oceans and continents and simple map making and map reading and progresses through land forms and climate regions and notable countries then onto more in depth of continents and their countries, at which point the CIA country factbook is an excellent resource. Cultures and their highlights, politics, resources, contributions to the world etc.
I would say it's rivers, mountain chains, direction points on a compass, latitude and longitude, plate tectonics, continents, topography of countries/provinces/states, history of other countries/cultures around the world in other countries, being able to read a map/map skills, politics though that would probably fall under Government.
I purchased our geography/social studies for next year's 7th grade. It has all sorts of information about the people, their resources, products, etc. I'm excited to learn and I hope my older daughter is too. :)
We purchased Ticket to Ride, and I plan to purchase the European edition too. I've heard from many people the games are great ways to learn geography.