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KickButtMama
Compiling My Curriculum - Science
July 31, 2013 at 11:42 AM

This is by FAR my easiest subject to teach, and it's my boys favorite! YAY.  We are doing a spectrum of grades, but I'll seperate it by 7th grade (my eldest) and 5th grade (my youngest.)


Each child will have a notebook they must maintain as their Science & Experiment notebook. THat way whenever they learn something new, or try a new experiment, they have one centralized location to keep it in.

Enjoy!

Replies

  • KickButtMama
    July 31, 2013 at 11:42 AM


    7th Grade (ish)

    Microbiology - 

    All living organisms are composed of cells, from just one to many trillions, whose 

    details usually are visible only through a microscope. As a basis for understanding 

    this concept: 

    a. Students know cells function similarly in all living organisms. 

    b. Students know the characteristics that distinguish plant cells from animal cells, 

    including chloroplasts and cell walls. 

    c. Students know the nucleus is the repository for genetic information in plant and 

    animal cells. 

    d. Students know that mitochondria liberate energy for the work that cells do and 

    that chloroplasts capture sunlight energy for photosynthesis. 

    e. Students know cells divide to increase their numbers through a process of mitosis

    Genetics 

    2. A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. 

    Those traits may be modified by environmental influences. As a basis for under­

    standing this concept: 

    a. Students know the differences between the life cycles and reproduction methods 

    of sexual and asexual organisms. 

    b. Students know sexual reproduction produces offspring that inherit half their 

    genes from each parent. 

    c. Students know an inherited trait can be determined by one or more genes. 


    d. Students know plant and animal cells contain many thousands of different genes

    and typically have two copies of every gene. The two copies (or alleles) of the 

    gene may or may not be identical, and one may be dominant in determining the 

    phenotype while the other is recessive. 

    e. Students know DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material of living 

    organisms and is located in the chromosomes of each cell. 

    Evolution 

    3. Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual 

    processes over many generations. As a basis for understanding this concept: 

    a. Students know both genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of 

    evolution and diversity of organisms. 

    b. Students know the reasoning used by Charles Darwin in reaching his conclusion 

    that natural selection is the mechanism of evolution. 

    c. Students know how independent lines of evidence from geology, fossils, and 

    comparative anatomy provide the bases for the theory of evolution. 

    d. Students know how to construct a simple branching diagram to classify living 

    groups of organisms by shared derived characteristics and how to expand the 

    diagram to include fossil organisms. 

    e. Students know that extinction of a species occurs when the environment chang

    Earth and Life History (Earth Sciences) 

    4. Evidence from rocks allows us to understand the evolution of life on Earth. As a 

    basis for understanding this concept: 

    a. Students know Earth processes today are similar to those that occurred in the past 

    and slow geologic processes have large cumulative effects over long periods of 

    time. 

    b. Students know the history of life on Earth has been disrupted by major cata­

    strophic events, such as major volcanic eruptions or the impacts of asteroids. 

    c. Students know that the rock cycle includes the formation of new sediment and 

    rocks and that rocks are often found in layers, with the oldest generally on the 

    bottom. 

    d. Students know that evidence from geologic layers and radioactive dating indicates 

    Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old and that life on this planet has existed 

    for more than 3 billion years.

  • KickButtMama
    July 31, 2013 at 11:43 AM

    Students know fossils provide evidence of how life and environmental conditions 

    have changed. 

    f. Students know how movements of Earth’s continental and oceanic plates through 

    time, with associated changes in climate and geographic connections, have af­

    fected the past and present distribution of organisms. 

    g. Students know how to explain significant developments and extinctions of plant 

    and animal life on the geologic time scale. 

    Structure and Function in Living Systems 

    5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary 

    nature of structure and function. As a basis for understanding this concept: 

    a. Students know plants and animals have levels of organization for structure and 

    function, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and the whole organism. 

    b. Students know organ systems function because of the contributions of individual 

    organs, tissues, and cells. The failure of any part can affect the entire system. 

    c. Students know how bones and muscles work together to provide a structural 

    framework for movement. 

    d. Students know how the reproductive organs of the human female and male gener­

    ate eggs and sperm and how sexual activity may lead to fertilization and preg­

    nancy. 

    e. Students know the function of the umbilicus and placenta during pregnancy. 

    f. Students know the structures and processes by which flowering plants generate 

    pollen, ovules, seeds, and fruit. 

    g. Students know how to relate the structures of the eye and ear to their functions. 

    Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Sciences) 

    6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions. As a basis for un­

    derstanding this concept: 

    a. Students know visible light is a small band within a very broad electromagnetic 

    spectrum. 

    b. Students know that for an object to be seen, light emitted by or scattered from it 

    must be detected by the eye. 

    c. Students know light travels in straight lines if the medium it travels through does 

    not change. 

  • KickButtMama
    July 31, 2013 at 11:43 AM

    d. Students know how simple lenses are used in a magnifying glass, the eye, 

    a camera, a telescope, and a microscope. 

    e. Students know that white light is a mixture of many wavelengths (colors) and that 

    retinal cells react differently to different wavelengths. 

    f. Students know light can be reflected, refracted, transmitted, and absorbed by 

    matter. 

    g. Students know the angle of reflection of a light beam is equal to the angle of inci­

    dence. 

    h. Students know how to compare joints in the body (wrist, shoulder, thigh) with 

    structures used in machines and simple devices (hinge, ball-and-socket, and 

    sliding joints). 

    i. Students know how levers confer mechanical advantage and how the application 

    of this principle applies to the musculoskeletal system. 

    j. Students know that contractions of the heart generate blood pressure and that 

    heart valves prevent backflow of blood in the circulatory system. 

    Investigation and Experimentation 

    7. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful 

    investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content 

    in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform 

    investigations. Students will: 

    a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, comput­

    ers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect 

    data, and display data. 

    b. Use a variety of print and electronic resources (including the World Wide Web) 

    to collect information and evidence as part of a research project. 

    c. Communicate the logical connection among hypotheses, science concepts, tests 

    conducted, data collected, and conclusions drawn from the scientific evidence. 

    d. Construct scale models, maps, and appropriately labeled diagrams to communi­

    cate scientific knowledge (e.g., motion of Earth’s plates and cell structure). 

    e. Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and 

    oral presentations

  • KickButtMama
    July 31, 2013 at 11:44 AM

    Motion

    1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position. As a basis for under­

    standing this concept: 

    a. Students know position is defined in relation to some choice of a standard refer­

    ence point and a set of reference directions. 

    b. Students know that average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the 

    total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along the path traveled can 

    vary. 

    c. Students know how to solve problems involving distance, time, and average 

    speed. 

    d. Students know the velocity of an object must be described by specifying both the 

    direction and the speed of the object. 

    e. Students know changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or 

    both. 

    f. Students know how to interpret graphs of position versus time and graphs of 

    speed versus time for motion in a single direction. 

    Forces 

    2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. As a basis for understanding this 

    concept: 

    a. Students know a force has both direction and magnitude. 

    b. Students know when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is 

    the cumulative effect of all the forces. 

    c. Students know when the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object 

    does not change. 

  • KickButtMama
    July 31, 2013 at 11:45 AM

    d. Students know how to identify separately the two or more forces that are acting 

    on�a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or com­

    pression in matter, and friction. 

    e. Students know that when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will 

    change its velocity (that is, it will speed up, slow down, or change direction). 

    f. Students know the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to 

    achieve the same rate of change in motion. 

    g. Students know the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of 

    planets, stars, and the solar system. 

    Structure of Matter 

    3. Each of the more than 100 elements of matter has distinct properties and a distinct 

    atomic structure. All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements. 

    As a basis for understanding this concept: 

    a. Students know the structure of the atom and know it is composed of protons, 

    neutrons, and electrons. 

    b. Students know that compounds are formed by combining two or more different 

    elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their 

    constituent elements. 

    c. Students know atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating 

    patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers. 

    d. Students know the states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) depend on molecular motion. 

    e. Students know that in solids the atoms are closely locked in position and can only 

    vibrate; in liquids the atoms and molecules are more loosely connected and can 

    collide with and move past one another; and in gases the atoms and molecules are 

    free to move independently, colliding frequently. 

    f. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify elements in simple 

    compounds. 

    Earth in the Solar System (Earth Sciences) 

    4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars 

    and galaxies and their evolution. As a basis for understanding this concept: 

    a. Students know galaxies are clusters of billions of stars and may have different 

    shapes. 

  • KickButtMama
    July 31, 2013 at 11:45 AM

    b. Students know that the Sun is one of many stars in the Milky Way galaxy and that 

    stars may differ in size, temperature, and color. 

    c. Students know how to use astronomical units and light years as measures of 

    distances between the Sun, stars, and Earth. 

    d. Students know that stars are the source of light for all bright objects in outer space 

    and that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight, not by their own light. 

    e. Students know the appearance, general composition, relative position and size, 

    and motion of objects in the solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, 

    comets, and asteroids. 

    Reactions 

    5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different 

    combinations of molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept: 

    a. Students know reactant atoms and molecules interact to form products with 

    different chemical properties. 

    b. Students know the idea of atoms explains the conservation of matter: In chemical 

    reactions the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are arranged, 

    so their total mass stays the same. 

    c. Students know chemical reactions usually liberate heat or absorb heat. 

    d. Students know physical processes include freezing and boiling, in which a 

    material changes form with no chemical reaction. 

    e. Students know how to determine whether a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral. 

    Chemistry of Living Systems (Life Sciences) 

    6. Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems. As a basis for 

    understanding this concept: 

    a. Students know that carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with 

    itself and other elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms. 

    b. Students know that living organisms are made of molecules consisting largely of 

    carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur. 

    c. Students know that living organisms have many different kinds of molecules, 

    including small ones, such as water and salt, and very large ones, such as carbo­

    hydrates, fats, proteins, and DNA. 

  • KickButtMama
    July 31, 2013 at 11:46 AM

    Periodic Table 

    7. The organization of the periodic table is based on the properties of the elements 

    and reflects the structure of atoms. As a basis for understanding this concept: 

    a. Students know how to identify regions corresponding to metals, nonmetals, 

    and inert gases. 

    b. Students know each element has a specific number of protons in the nucleus (the 

    atomic number) and each isotope of the element has a different but specific 

    number of neutrons in the nucleus. 

    c. Students know substances can be classified by their properties, including their 

    melting temperature, density, hardness, and thermal and electrical conductivity. 

    Density and Buoyancy 

    8. All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid. As a basis for 

    understanding this concept: 

    a. Students know density is mass per unit volume. 

    b. Students know how to calculate the density of substances (regular and irregular 

    solids and liquids) from measurements of mass and volume. 

    c. Students know the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal 

    to the weight of the fluid the object has displaced. 

    d. Students know how to predict whether an object will float or sink.

  • KickButtMama
    July 31, 2013 at 11:54 AM


    5th Grade (ish) Sciences

    Physical Sciences

    1. Elements and their combinations account for all the varied types of matter in the 

    world. As a basis for understanding this concept: 

    a. Students know that during chemical reactions the atoms in the reactants rearrange 

    to form products with different properties. 

    b. Students know all matter is made of atoms, which may combine to form mol­

    ecules. 

    c. Students know metals have properties in common, such as high electrical and 

    thermal conductivity. Some metals, such as aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), 

    copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au), are pure elements; others, such as steel 

    and brass, are composed of a combination of elemental metals. 

    d. Students know that each element is made of one kind of atom and that the ele­

    ments are organized in the periodic table by their chemical properties. 

    e. Students know scientists have developed instruments that can create discrete 

    images of atoms and molecules that show that the atoms and molecules often 

    occur in well-ordered arrays. 

    f. Students know differences in chemical and physical properties of substances are 

    used to separate mixtures and identify compounds. 

    g. Students know properties of solid, liquid, and gaseous substances, such as sugar 

    (C6

    H O6

    ), water (H2

    O), helium (He), oxygen (O2

    ), nitrogen (N2

    ), and carbon 12

    dioxide (CO2

    ). 

    h. Students know living organisms and most materials are composed of just a few 

    elements. 

    i. Students know the common properties of salts, such as sodium chloride (NaCl).

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